You may not know it but the phrase OBGYN means Obstetrics and Gynecology, which is a specialty in medical field. Obstetrics is basically a field of medicine that is training physicians on how to properly take care of pregnant patients and successfully deliver their babies. With regards to gynecology however, this is a field that is training physicians on how to diagnose and treat disorders of female reproductive organs.
Medical doctors are often training both specialties concurrently since both are dealing intimately with function, anatomy as well as pathophysiology of female reproductive tract. Apart from that, for women who are pregnant or not or just want to be pregnant, these OBGYN doctors are non-surgically and surgically treating them.
While it is common for such doctors to be a woman, there are also male doctors who practice OBGYN medicine. A doctor who practices OBGYN medicine might even be seen specializing in reproductive endocrinology, pelvic reconstructive surgery, oncology, family planning, perinatology, adolescent gynecology, menopausal gynecology or even pediatric.
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Perinatology is a field of medicine that is focusing on health of mother as well as the fetus with a special emphasis on fetal surgery or high risk pregnancy management. The time of and even around childbirth might be precipitous and the ultimate goal of perinatologists is reducing mortality and morbidity for the mother and child.
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On the other hand, a reproductive endocrinologist assists patients with diagnosing, treating, understanding or sometimes dealing with infertility. While there are many congenital, biological and anatomical causes of infertility, both the treatment and the diagnosis are focused on intervention that help couples to get pregnant. A physician will perform a series of tests on the patient and her partner as well in order to narrow the main source of infertility and create a set of recommendations according to determined diagnosis.
With regards to OBGYN oncology however, this is a medical sub specialty that deals with non-surgical and surgical treatment of cancer found in reproductive organs and the urinary tract of female patient. Cancer often spread so fast and it is vitally important to contact an OBGYN doctor immediately to be able to determine what therapy can bring the most benefit. An experienced and appropriately trained physician can be a big help in terms of guiding and educating the patient to make an informed decision regarding their health whether systematic chemotherapy or local excision is required.
As for women who have prolapse of pelvic organs as a result of childbirth or pregnancy or those who have urinary incontinence, pelvic reconstructive surgery is a typical treatment done towards them.